ウィットビー


先回のウィットビーのお話です。

 

 

Whitby was called Streanæshalc,

Streoneshalch, Streoneshalh, and Streunes-Alae in Lindissi in records of the 7th and 8th centuries. Prestebi, meaning the “habitation of priests” in Old Norse, is an 11th century name. Its name was recorded as Hwitebi and Witebi, meaning the “white settlement” in Old Norse, in the 12th century, Whitebi in the 13th century and Qwiteby in the 14th century.[5]

Abbey
Main article: Whitby Abbey

The picturesque ruins of Whitby Abbey are reflected in the abbey pond
A monastery was founded at Streanœhealh in AD 657 by King Oswiu or Oswy of Northumbria, as an act of thanksgiving, after defeating Penda, the pagan king of Mercia. At its foundation, the abbey was an Anglo-Saxon ‘double monastery’ for men and women. Its first abbess, the royal princess Hild, was later venerated as a saint.[6] The abbey became a centre of learning and here Cædmon the cowherd was “miraculously” transformed into an inspired poet whose poetry is an example of Anglo-Saxon literature. The abbey became the leading royal nunnery of the kingdom of Deira, and the burial-place of its royal family. The Synod of Whitby, in 664, established the Roman date of Easter in Northumbria at the expense of the Celtic one.[7]

The monastery was destroyed between 867 and 870 in a series of raids by Vikings from Denmark under their leaders Ingwar and Ubba. Its site remained desolate for more than 200 years until after the Norman Conquest of 1066.[5] After the Conquest, the area was granted to William de Percy who, in 1078 donated land to found a Benedictine monastery dedicated to St Peter and St Hilda.[8] William de Percy’s gift included land for the monastery, the town and port of Whitby and St Mary’s Church and dependent chapels at Fyling, Hawsker, Sneaton, Ugglebarnby, Dunsley, and Aislaby, five mills including Ruswarp, Hackness with two mills and two churches.[9] In about 1128 Henry I granted the abbey burgage in Whitby and permission to hold a fair at the feast of St Hilda on 25 August. A second fair was held close to St. Hilda’s winter feast at Martinmas. Market rights were granted to the abbey and descended with the liberty. Whitby Abbey surrendered in December 1539 when Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries.

ウィットビー・アビはイギリスの文化財保護団体イングリッシュ・ヘリテイジの保護管理のもとに一般公開されています。

この邸宅では資料館としてオープンし、ウィットビー・アビから発掘された遺物や資料などが展示されているんですよ。

1897年出版に出版されたホラー小説の古典「吸血鬼ドラキュラ(Dracula)」は、ウィットビーは、ドラキュラ伯爵の乗っていた船が漂着

した末にたどり着き、伯爵がイギリスに上陸した物語です。

その地として知られているようになったのが、「吸血鬼ドラキュラ」の作者ブラム・ストーカー(Bram Stoker)です。

ウィットビーの図書館で「ドラキュラ(Dracula)」という名前に出会い、ウィットビーの民話を小説の中に盛り込んで

「吸血鬼ドラキュラ」を書きました。

そしてもう一人は、ウィットビーで知られている人として、キャプテンクックがいます。

クックは、ウィットビー近隣の村の出身だそうです。

ウィットビーで船乗りとしての働いてて、庶民出身としては破格の出世である英国海軍のキ

 

街には彼の博物館もあります。

ウィットビー・アビにはキャプテン・クックの像もあるそうです。

いろいろな歴史が深い都市で、歴史の好きな方にはとても興味深いですね。